The Little Bear
The Little Bear like its Universal Prototype,
the Great Bear,of which it is a lesser reflection and a corollary, is
not a constellation itself, but an asterism, which is a distinctive group
of stars. Please note this distinction. For
the purpose of this short letter I wish to reassure some of you, with
a smile, that I therefore will not be discussing three inter-related solar
systems or constllations, but discussing two inter-related asterisms and
an open star cluster, M45.
So much for the relative occult relevence
of exoteric definitions and words, exoteric or esoteric.
Regardless of what terms you prefer
the important point to keep in
mind is that the Seven Rishi/Stars of the Great Bear and the seven
Rishi/Stars of the Lesser Bear and the Seven Sisters of the Pleiades
form the Absolute Monadic Triangle of the OAWNMBS.
One of the mysteries of modern exoteric
astronomy as to how the name "bear"
came to be associated with either the great bear or the Little Bear. In
ancient Chaldean, Persian, Indian and Egyptian zodiacs, no bear is found.
AAB, writes, "The names most commonly
use are those of "the sheepfold", or "the flock of sheep,"
and an analysis of the Hebrew and Arabic names for the stars found in
these two inter-related constellations will be found to prove the fact
that the ancient names signify "the lesser flock", "the
sheepfold", "the sheep", and "the ship". In the
thirty-fourth chapter of Ezekiel and in the tenth chapter of St. John,
is much that has reference to these constellations." (LOH 91]
The Tibetan teaches:
"....the Little Bear which is
a reflection of or a corollary to the major
energies of its greater prototype, Ursa Major, the Great Bear. These facts
contain a great mystery connected with the interrelation of Ursa Major,
Minor and the Pleiades; they constitute one of the greatest and more
important of the triplicities to be found in the heavens as far as we
astronomically ascertained the nature of our immediate universe. This
a perfectly unimportant piece of information as far as you are concerned
and is only of significance to initiates of the fourth degree. It serves,
nevertheless, to add its evidence to the essential integrity and interlocking
dependencies of the universe."
He also states:
"The seven stars of the
Great Bear or Ursa Major are involved in an intricate relation with Ursa
Minor and the Pleiades. With this we shall not deal. This major
[EA608] triplicity of constellations has a peculiar relation to that Great
Being to Whom I have at times referred as the One About Whom Naught Can
Be Said. All that can be hinted at is that these three galaxies
of stars are the three aspects of that Indescribable, Absolute Monad,
the Ineffable Cause of the seven solar systems - of which ours is one." [EA607]
THE ABSOLUTE MONADIC TRIANGLE
OF THE OAWNMBS:
and in a continuing paper ...
It would not be appropriate of me not
to complete my initial presentation of
the 1st ray Great Bear cosmic Head Center correlatins of the OAWNMBS without
discussing the sevenfold Little Bear which is a reflection of or a corollary
to the major energies of its greater prototype, Ursa Major, the Great
Much fainter than its "Big"
counterpart, the Little Bear can be hard to find in the sky. Ursa Minor
is almost entirely represented by its major asterism, the "Little
Dipper", which starts at Polaris (the North Star).
Polaris is very close to the North Celestial
Pole, around which the stars of the northern hemisphere appear to circulate
as a result of the rotation of the Earth.
The two stars at the front of
the bowl of the Little Dipper are sometimes called the "Guardians
of the Pole." The upper one is Kochab, the lower one Pherkad.
Most of the Little Dipper (including Yildun, the second star in from the
end of the handle, Alifa al Farkadain, where the bowl joins the handle,
and Anwar al Farkadain, below Alifa)
The Seven Stars of Ursa Major related
to the Seven Stars of Ursa Minor.
STAR I...... RAY I........
STAR II.....RAY II.......
STAR III....RAY III.....
STAR IV....RAY IV......
STAR V.....RAY V........
STAR VI....RAY VI......
STAR VII.. RAY VII....
I. POLARIS. Alpha UMi (Pole Star) is a
cepheid varying from 1.92 to 2.07
every 3d 23h 16m 28.8s. Class F yellow supergiant.
II. YILDUN. (Yildun delta). mag. 4.44.
spectral class: A0. Greenish star.
White class A star (A1) 183 light years away with a temperature of 9000
Kelvin, a luminosity 47 times that of the Sun, and a diameter of 2.8 solar.
It has a high rotation speed of 174 kilometers per second that makes its
spectrum lines fuzzy. The star spins 87 times faster than the Sun, and
a full rotation in just 19 hours.
III. EPSILON. (Epsilon UMi) is an EA type
variable: 4.19 - 4.23, period
IV. ALIFA. (Alifa al Farkadain), where
the bowl joins the handle
corresponds to Star IV of the Great Bear, Rishi ATREYA or the Arabic Megrez
- the "intersection point".
VI. PHERKAD. A radius "15" times
solar. From a distance of 480 light years, we calculate a high luminosity
1100 times that of the Sun, double that of Kochab, yielding a radius 15
times solar. As a warm giant, and a bright one at that, the star is evolving,
probably with a for-now quiet helium core surrounded by a ring of fusing
hydrogen, its current temperature and luminosity suggesting a mass of
around five times solar. herkad is still spinning rapidly, over 170 kilometers
per second at the equator, 85 times solar, which keeps things stirred
up and the composition "normal." The star nevertheless exudes
mystery. It is of interest for its subtle and confusing variability, changing
over less than a tenth of a magnitude with a period of only a couple hours.
STAR VI. PHERKAD.
VII. ANWAR. A class F (in the middle of
the range, F5) dwarf with an
estimated temperature of 6400 Kelvin, right at the point at which we do
have to correct for infrared or ultraviolet radiation. The star's luminosity
of only 7.4 times that of the Sun leads to a radius twice solar and a
Cepheids are paramount distance indicators
in astronomy, as their true brightnesses are revealed by their periods
of oscillation. Polaris is particularly interesting as the pulsations
have nearly, but not quite, ceased. Just as a violin string has a "fundamental"
tone that gives its pitch, it also vibrates in higher- frequency overtones.
Comparison with other Cepheids shows that Polaris is pulsating not with
its natural fundamental period, but in its first overtone.
The star is actually an evolved class
F yellow supergiant 2200 times more luminous than our Sun. Hydrogen fusion
has stopped in the star's core, and it is now passing through a phase
of instability wherein it pulsates over a period of about four days, changing
its brightness as the brightest "Cepheid" variable star in the
Star I. 1st Ray.
(Alpha Ursae Minoris) (sk) DHRUVA.
A fundamental period of 5.7 days. THE
FIRST STAR star in the Triad of handle stars of the tail of the Little
Bear Ursa Minor. Its name comes to us from the Latin, Stella Polaris,
meaning "Pole Star". Polaris has long been an important star
to sailors, caravans of old winding their way over the desert by night
and others who navigated their way by the stars. Located almost directly
overhead as seen from the North Pole.
Perhaps more than any star other than
the Sun; Polaris has been regarded as the most important star in the heavens.
It has been known by many names in the past; "the Pathway";
"the Pointer" - indicating the way; "Navel of the World",
"Gate of Heaven", "Hub of the Cosmos", "the Highest
Peak of the World Mountain", "Lodestar"; "the Steering
Star"; "the Ship Star"; and Stella Maris "Star of
True to its first ray archetype, to our
eyes 1st Ray Rishi Dhruva Who expresses Himself through Polaris appears
to be motionless at the center of the field of circumpolar stars, a "still
point in the turning world". All the other stars appear to circle
around Polaris. Not seasonal, always there in the nighttime sky, Polaris,
the North Star, marks the unchanging North Celestial Pole, for most of
us about halfway up the sky to the north, the elevation above the horizon
equal to the observer's latitude. Actually, Polaris is slightly off the
pole and has a tiny circle around it about 1.5 degrees across. The pole
itself, about which Polaris goes, marks true north, the fundamental direction
for us in the northern hemisphere that defines the others, east, west,
Because of a 26,000 year wobble in the
Earth's axis, the pole of the sky is slowly moving closer to Polaris,
and then, around the year 2100, will start to pull away. Thousands of
years from now, Polaris will be well off the pole, other stars someday
taking its place.
Polaris also marks the end of the handle
of the Little Dipper, the prominent figure of Ursa Minor, the Smaller
Bear. Polaris has the common reputation of being the brightest star in
the sky, whereas near dead-on second magnitude (2.02) it comes in at about
number 40. Its lower rank, however, is largely determined by its great
distance of 430 light years. The prototype of this kind of star, Delta
Cephei, though fainter, is a much more obvious variable, its changes easily
seen with the naked eye. Comparison with other Cepheids shows that Polaris
is pulsating not with its natural fundamental period, but in its first
overtone. The star may be in the process of evolving into its fundamental
period of 5.7 days to become a more-normal Cepheid with a greater variation.
Delta Ursae Minoris
Spectral class: A0. Magnitude: 4.4. A
greenish star in the middle of the tail of the Small Bear Ursa Minor.
Yildun is generally given to this, probably from the Turkish Yilduz. Vildiur,
Gildun, were variations of this name.
This "dancing" of the stars
generally, as well as of the planets, was a favorite simile, and in classical
days specially gave name to delta (Yildun) and epsilon of this constellation,
as well as in Hindu astronomy. The Greeks had for delta, "First
Dancer" and for the adjoining epsilon, the "Second
Dancer", there were also general designations in which alpha, beta,
and the two stars gamma were included.
Yildun has two chief distinctions, neither
of them involving the star itself. At faint fourth magnitude, almost fifth,
it is certainly not very bright for a named star. One of the faint stars
of the Little Dipper's handle (the Dipper the major figure of Ursa Minor,
the Smaller Bear), it cannot be seen with the naked eye from a modestly-lit
Ursa Minor is one of the few constellations
in which the Greek letters actually do progress from brightest to faintest.
Polaris tops the list as Alpha, after which follow Kochab (Beta) and Pherkad
(Gamma). The next three are all about the same, so while Yildun is technically
number 6 in brightness, (slightly beat out by Epsilon and Zeta), its designation
as Delta is certainly forgivable. Eta and Theta follow.
The first distinction is the name. While
most stars carry Arabic names, and the ones that do not are mostly of
Greek or Latin extraction, "Yildun" is taken from a Turkish
word for "star." Why such a faint star was given such
a singular proper name is not known. But it may have to do with the second
As the second star in from the
Little Dipper's handle, Yildun is very close to the North Celestial Pole,
the sky's point of zero rotation. Only 3.5 degrees away from
the Pole, if not for Polaris, Yildun would make a reasonably acceptable
Pole star and probably would have been called Polaris! Aside from Polaris
itself, it is the closest star to the Pole with a proper name and Greek
letter. It is circumpolar -- perpetually visible -- from the entire northern
hemisphere down to a latitude of only 3 degrees north.
Moreover, it is about as close
to the Pole as it can be, as precession, the 26,000-year wobble
of the Earth's axis, is now carrying the Pole away from it. Physically,
Yildun is a quite ordinary white class A star (A1) 183 light years away
with a temperature of 9000 Kelvin, a luminosity 47 times that of the Sun,
and a diameter of 2.8 solar. Its only real, and not all that unusual,
physical distinction is a high rotation speed of 174 kilometers per second
that makes its spectrum lines fuzzy. The star spins 87 times faster than
the Sun, and makes a full rotation in just 19 hours.
EPSILON. var. G5.
KOCHAB. "Guradian of the
(Kochab beta) mag. 2.24. K4. An orange
giant star. So is Star V, of the Great Bwar, Dubhe. The name Kochab means
"bright one", or "the lights". Again, keep in mind;
the 5th ray Lord is known as one of the most intense beings of spiritual
Kochab, an obscure Arabic name that might
simply mean "star," is just barely the second brightest, and
appropriately the Beta, star in Ursa Minor, and represents the top front
bowl star of the Little Dipper. Only 15 degrees from the north celestial
pole, middle northerners can see it every night as it plies its small
Together with the other bowl star (Pherkad,
the Gamma star), it makes a small asterism called the "Guardians
of the Pole," the two seeming in myth to "protect" the
pole star. Unlike the Sun, Kochab has run out of internal hydrogen fuel,
and is an evolving orange giant star that is now running for awhile on
the fusion of helium deep in its core. At a distance of 126 light years,
we calculate that it is almost 500 times more luminous (and about 50 times
bigger) than our Sun. It appears about the same brightness as much more
luminous Polaris because it is much closer and because, at a temperature
of 4000 degrees Kelvin, it radiates a fair amount of its light in the
infrared where we cannot see it. It has a reputation as a marginal "barium
star," the element only a small bit enhanced relative to what is
found in the Sun.
PHERKAD "Guardina of the
Spectral class: A2. Glows at mid-third
magnitude in the bowl of the Little Dipper and is circumpolar from anywhere
north of 20 degrees north latitude along with its mate Kochab. Third brightest
within the Little Dipper, the major figure of Ursa Minor Pherkad received
Bayer's Gamma designation, its superiors being second magnitude Kochab
(Beta) and famed Polaris (Alpha), which lies just short of the north celestial
pole. (The other stars in the Dipper are fourth and fifth magnitude and
hard to see with any kind of lighting). The name derives from the Arabic
for "the two calves," which originally referred to both Kochab
Together, the two stars are also called
"the Guardians of the Pole," as they nightly draw a close circle
around one of the sky's most significant stars, Polaris. Like its bowl-mate
Kochab, Pherkad is a giant star, but one considerably hotter, at the warm
side of class A with a temperature of 8600 Kelvin. From its distance of
480 light years, we calculate a high luminosity 1100 times that of the
Sun, double that of Kochab, yielding a radius 15 times solar.
As a warm giant, and a bright one at that,
the star is evolving, probably with a for-now quiet helium core surrounded
by a ring of fusing hydrogen, its current temperature and luminosity suggesting
a mass of around five times solar. If that is the case, it left the "main
sequence," where it once (like the Sun) fused core hydrogen, only
about 100 million years ago, and will, by odd coincidence, before long
turn into a star much like Kochab is today. Many class A stars have odd
chemical compositions resulting from selective settling and lofting of
atoms in quiet atmospheres.
The 7th Ray star Anwar, rotating at least
76 kilometers per second (with a period under 1.4 days). Like the Sun,
the rotation (and convection in its outer layers) give Anwar an X-ray-emitting
hot corona. We do not have to correct for infrared or ultraviolet radiation.
The star's luminosity of only 7.4 times that of the Sun leads to a radius
twice solar and a mass 1.4 solar.
Note: KOCHAB and PHERKAD are the "Guardians
of the Pole" corresponding
to ray and star FIVE and SIX in the Great Bear, I.E., famed stars Dubhe
Merak, the "pointers to the Pole".
ANWAR AL FARKADAIN (Eta Ursae Minoris).
At the bottom of the Little Dipper, we
find dim fifth magnitude (4.95) "Anwar," the faintest star of
the Dipper's seven. Physically, the star is nearly (but not quite) sunlike,
a class F (in the middle of the range, F5) dwarf with an estimated temperature
of 6400 Kelvin, right at the point at which we do not have to correct
for infrared or ultraviolet radiation. The star's luminosity of only 7.4
times that of the Sun leads to a radius twice solar and a mass 1.4 solar.
Rather well along in its hydrogen-fusing lifetime, Anwar is a bit brighter
than normal for its temperature, and seems close to becoming a "subdwarf,"
a star that has shut down hydrogen fusion, if it has not already done